The Science Behind Beef


The grain feeding of the cattle at Chalmar Beef is an exact science which requires dedication and hard work. Our operation runs 24 hours a day 365 days a year. The cattle are fed a balanced diet consisting of two rations per day.  The ration that is given to the cattle is formulated by an expert feed nutritionist. The right amount of proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and energy are given to the cattle to ensure a healthy and strong immune system and maximise the animals growth potential.


The main raw materials we feed the cattle are as follows :.
  • Hominy Chop: when maize is milled to produce maize meal for human consumption around 30 % of the original maize is left over which is called chop. It is very nutritious but humans have not developed a taste for it. Chop is the main source of energy in our diets but also makes a good contribution to the protein requirement of the cattle.
  • Wheat Bran: when wheat is milled to produce flour  the bran portion of the wheat is left over. Bran is primarily used as a source of protein for the cattle .
  • Soya oilcake: this is what is left over when the oil has been extracted from the soya to produce cooking oil . Soya oilcake is very high in protein and has a diverse amino acid spectrum.
  • Fuzzy cotton seed: once the cotton has been removed for the clothing and textile industry the fuzzy cottonseed is left . Fuzzy cotton is very high in energy and is a good source of roughage as well.
  • Molasses: is a by- product of the sugar refining  industry. This makes a small contribution to the ration energy and binds the ration together because it is very sticky.
  • Maize: typically not more than 20% of the ration.  Maize is primarily used as an energy source but also makes a contribution to the protein level in the ration.
  • Maize silage: We use silage as a source of fibre. The whole maize plant is used to produce silage, not just the cob in contrast to maize production for us humans where we only consume a small part of the plant
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We add the following supplements to these raw materials for our cattle:
  • Urea: to supplement Nitrogen to the rumen micro organisms.
  • Salt (Na)
  • Lime for calcium (Ca)
  • Vitamin and mineral mixes
  • Monensin: an additive to improve growth and decrease the amount of feed needed. Monensin is used in the USA, Canada & Australia. It has been used for over 30 years internationally.